The term probiotic is derived from the Latin word probiota which means “for life”.
Probiotics are microorganisms that live in us and with us in many parts of the body: the intestines, the skin, the vagina, the nostrils and other mucous membranes.
This is a constantly evolving microbiotic ecosystem that affects health, depending on the prevalence of good or bad bacteria. It is almost an organic entity that communicates with the brain and other systems to modulate metabolic activities.
Probiotics are available as supplements in appreciable doses or they can added directly to different foods such as yogurt in smaller quantities. They may be of human, animal or dairy origin, or often times of vegetable origin.
Be careful not to confuse probiotics and prebiotics; the latter are food precursors to the former. Prebiotics are fermented in the colon, they then nourish the probiotics of the body.
They have been studied for several decades, and the verdict is out…
The substantial scientific data is in favour of probiotics, especially for the following main advantages and uses :
The use of probiotics has no undesirable side effects, unless exaggerating and taken more than the recommended dosage35. When an overdose occurs, the possible symptoms are bloating and constipation36. For patients with advanced infectious conditions and weakened immune systems, some strains of probiotics should advised against37.
Probaclac probiotics are manufactured to the highest standards of the pharmaceutical industry, are clinically tested to demonstrate the desired effects and are certified by Health Canada (with an NPN or natural product number to ensure safety and quality of the product 38).
They contain multi-strain complexes that reflect the natural composition of the human probiotic flora (Bifidobacteria, Lactobacilli).
A mixture of strains is favorable since it allows the synergy of activities of the different bacteria, providing a range of health benefits39.
Futhermore, mixed formulas are more effective in controlling pathogenic bacteria such as Clostridium difficile, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella thyphimurium than probiotics with fewer or single strains 40.
The Probaclac formulas are adapted to the age, physical condition and composition of the intestinal flora to ensure a better proportion of beneficial bacteria according to their stage in life and their health.
The capsules are lyophilized (which means freeze-dried) and colonize the intestinal tract upon contact with heat, moisture and interior darkness.
All our strains have the ability to withstand a pH of 3.0, although it is better not to consume them fasting (very acidic environment) but rather with a meal to promote their proliferation.
Probaclac supplements contain between 2 billion (Probaclac Children) and 15 billion (Probaclac Gastrointestinal) of active probiotic cells per capsule, which respects the daily dosage recommended by the Canadian Paediatric Society for children and by Health Canada for adults 13,41.
Despite the fact that fermented products at the grocery store (yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, kombucha, etc.) are sources of lactic acid bacteria or prebiotics, they offer fewer bacterial strains than probiotics in capsules and in significantly reduced amounts 20.
The Probaclac supplements contain in addition to fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) which provide prebiotic effects to encourage the multiplication of probiotics throughout the body. It goes without saying that it is important to eat a healthy diet everyday with a variety of nutritious foods beyond supplementation42.
1 Université Laval – Contact [Site web] : Entrevue avec André Marette, Professeur au Département de médecine et Chercheur à l’Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec. Consulté 31 août 2017. http://www.contact.ulaval.ca/article_magazine/la-revanche-de-lintestin/
2 Guarino A, Guandalini S et Lo Vecchio A. Probiotics for Prevention and Treatment of Diarrhea. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2015 Nov-Dec ; 49 Suppl 1 : s37-45.
3 Allen SJ, Wareham K, Wang D et al. A high-dose preparation of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the prevention of antibiotic-associated and Clostridium difficile diarrhoea in older people admitted to hospital: a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm trial (PLACIDE). Health Technol Assess. 2013 Dec ; 17(57) : 1-140.
4 McFarland LV. Meta-Analysis of Probiotics for the Prevention of Antibiotic Associated Diarrhea and the Treatment of Clostridium difficile Disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006 ; 101 : 812-822.
5 Perna S, Barriga P, Sirvent H, Knowles H et al. Important Risk Reduction in Nosocomial Clostridium Difficile with Institution of Probiotic Prophylaxis. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2014 ; 68 : 217-35.
6 Micklefield G. Saccharomyces boulardii in the treatment and prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. MMW Fortschr Med. 2014 Apr; 156 Suppl 1: 18-22.
7 Kotowska M, Albrecht P et Szajewska H. Saccharomyces boulardii in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in children : a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2005 Mar ; 21(5) : 583-90.
8 Bischoff, SC. Microbiota and aging. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2016 Jan ; 19 (1) : 26-30.
9 Rondanelli M, Giocosa A, Faliva MA et al. Review on microbiota and effectiveness of probiotics use in older. World J Clin Cases. 2015 Feb 16 ; (2) : 156-62.
10 Kollaritsch H, Paulke-Korinek M et Wiedermann U. Traveler’s Diarrhea. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2012 Sep ; 26(3) : 691-706.
11 Hill DR et Beeching NJ. Travelers’ diarrhea. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010 Oct ; 23(5) : 481-7.
12 Martinez-Martinez MI, Calabuig-Tolsa R et Cauli O. The effect of probiotics as a treatment for constipation in elderly people : A systematic review. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2017 Jul ; 71 : 142-149.
13 Société canadienne de pédiatrie [Document de principes]. L’utilisation de probiotiques au sein de la population pédiatrique. 28 février 2015.
14 Brenner DM, Moeller MJ, Chey WD et Schoenfeld PS. The utility of probiotics in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review. Am J Gastroenterol. 2009 Apr ; 104(4) : 1033-49.
15 Akbari E, Asemi Z, Daneshvar Kakhaki R et al. Effect of Probiotic Supplementation on Cognitive Function and Metabolic Status in Alzheimer’s Disease: A Randomized, Double-Blind and Controlled Trial. Front Aging Neurosci. 2016 ; Nov 10 (8) : 26-30.
16 Hanson L, VandeVusse L, Jermé M et al. Probiotics for Treatment and Prevention of Urogenital Infections in Women : A Systematic Review. J Midwifery Womens Health. 2016 ; May (3) : 339-355.
17 Ya W, Reifer C et Miller LE. Efficacy of vaginal probiotic capsules for recurrent bacterial vaginosis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 ; Aug (2) : 120.
18 Kovachev S et Dobrevski-Vacheva R. Effect of Lactobacillus casei var rhamnosus (Gynophilus) in restoring the vaginal flora by female patients with bacterial vaginosis– randomized, open clinical trial. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 2013 ; 52 Suppl 1 : 48-53.
19 Bischoff, SC. Microbiota and aging. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2016 ; Jan 19 (1) : 26-30.
20 Naître et Grandir [Site web]. Consulté le 10 mai 2017. http://naitreetgrandir.com/fr/etape/1_3_ans/alimentation/fiche.aspx?doc=bg-naitre-grandir-probiotique
21 West CE. Probiotics for allergy prevention. Benef Microbes. 2016 ; 7 (2) : 171-9.
22 Kumar M, Nagpal R, Kumar R, Hemalatha R et al. Cholesterol-lowering probiotics as potential biotherapeutics for metabolic diseases. Exp Diabetes Res. 2012 May [E-pub].
23 Khalesi S, Sun J, Buys N et Jayasinghe R. Effect of probiotics on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials. Hypertension. 2014 Oct ; 64(4) : 897-903.
24 Kali A. Psychobiotics: An emerging probiotic in psychiatric practice. Biomed J. 2016 Jun; 39(3): 223-4.
25 Savignac HM, Kiely B et al. Bifidobacteria exert strain-specific effects on stress-related behavior and physiology in BALB/c mice. Neurogastroenterol Motil. 2014 Nov ; 26(11) : 1615-27.
26 Galland L. The gut microbiome and the brain. J Med Food. 2014 Dec ; 17(12) : 1261-72.
27 Dinan TG, Borre YE et Cryan JF. Genomics of schizophrenia : time to consider the gut microbiome? Mol Psychiatry. 2014 Dec ; 19(12) : 1252-7.
28 Society for Neuroscience [2015 Annual Meeting]. Abstract 162.04. Présenté le 18 octobre 2015.
29 Dinant TG, Stanton C et Cryan JF. Psychobiotics : a novel class of psychotropic. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Nov ; 74(10) : 720-6.
30 Fédération québécoise de l’autisme [Site Web]. Consulté le 8 juillet 2017. http://www.autisme.qc.ca/tsa/lautisme-en-chiffres.html
31 Li Q et Zhou JM. The microbiota-gut-grain axis and its potential therapeutic role in autism spectrum disorder. Neuroscience. 2016 Jun ; 324 : 131-9.
32 Sanchez M, Darimont C, Drapeau V, Emady-Azar S et al. Effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women. Br J Nutr. 2014 Apr ; 111(8) : 1507-19.
33 Mekkes MC, Weenen TC, Brummer RJ et Claassen E. The development of probiotic treatment in obesity : a review. Benef Microbes. 2014 Mar ; 5(1) : 19-28.
34 Sharma D, Kober MM et Bowe WP. Anti-Aging Effects of Probiotics. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016 ; Jan 15 (1) : 9-12.
35 Yates AA, Edman JW, Shao A et al. Bioactive nutrients – Time for tolerable upper intake levels to address safety. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017 Mar ; 84 : 94-101.
36 Jean-Yves Dionne [Site web]. Consulté le 23 juin 2017. http://www.jydionne.com/comment-choisir-un-supplement-de-probiotiques/
37 Van den Nieuwboer M, Brummer RJ, Guarner F et al. The administration of probiotics and synbiotics in immune compromised adults: is it safe? Benef Microbes. 2015 Mar ; 6(1) : 3-17.
38 Association canadienne des aliments de santé [Site web]. Consulté 31 août 2017. https://chfa.ca/fr/npn/canadian-npn-explained.html
39 Timmerman HM, Koning CJ, Mulder L, Rombouts FM et Beynen AC. Monostrain, multi strain and multispecies probiotics–A comparison of functionality and efficacy. Int J Food Microbiol. 2004 Nov ; 15 (3) : 219-33.
40 Chapman CM, Gibson R et Rowland I. In vitro evaluation of single- and multi-strain probiotics: Inter- species inhibition between probiotic strains, and inhibition of pathogens. Anaerobe. 2012 Aug ; 18 (4) : 405-413.
41 Santé Canada [Site web]. Consulté 5 septembre 2017. http://webprod.hc-sc.gc.ca/nhpid-bdipsn/atReq.do?atid=probio&lang=fra
42 Flesch AG, Poziomyck AK et Damin DC. The therapeutic use of symbiotics. Are Bras Cir Dig. 2014 Jul-Sep ; 27 (3) : 206-9.